Source code for terracotta.drivers.mysql


MySQL-backed raster driver. Metadata is stored in a MySQL database, raster data is assumed
to be present on disk.

from typing import (Tuple, Dict, Iterator, Sequence, Union,
                    Mapping, Any, Optional, cast, TypeVar, NamedTuple)
from collections import OrderedDict
import contextlib
from contextlib import AbstractContextManager
import re
import json
import urllib.parse as urlparse
from urllib.parse import ParseResult

import numpy as np
import pymysql
from pymysql.connections import Connection
from pymysql.cursors import DictCursor

from terracotta import get_settings, __version__
from terracotta.drivers.raster_base import RasterDriver
from terracotta.drivers.base import requires_connection
from terracotta import exceptions
from terracotta.profile import trace

T = TypeVar('T')

    'Could not connect to database. Make sure that the given path points '
    'to a valid Terracotta database, and that you ran driver.create().'

def convert_exceptions(msg: str) -> Iterator:
    """Convert internal mysql exceptions to our InvalidDatabaseError"""
    from pymysql import OperationalError, InternalError, ProgrammingError
    except (OperationalError, InternalError, ProgrammingError) as exc:
        raise exceptions.InvalidDatabaseError(msg) from exc

class MySQLCredentials(NamedTuple):
    host: str
    port: int
    db: str
    user: Optional[str] = None
    password: Optional[str] = None

[docs]class MySQLDriver(RasterDriver): """A MySQL-backed raster driver. Assumes raster data to be present in separate GDAL-readable files on disk or remotely. Stores metadata and paths to raster files in MySQL. Requires a running MySQL server. The MySQL database consists of 4 different tables: - ``terracotta``: Metadata about the database itself. - ``key_names``: Contains two columns holding all available keys and their description. - ``datasets``: Maps key values to physical raster path. - ``metadata``: Contains actual metadata as separate columns. Indexed via key values. This driver caches raster data and key names, but not metadata. """ _MAX_PRIMARY_KEY_LENGTH = 767 // 4 # Max key length for MySQL is at least 767B _METADATA_COLUMNS: Tuple[Tuple[str, ...], ...] = ( ('bounds_north', 'REAL'), ('bounds_east', 'REAL'), ('bounds_south', 'REAL'), ('bounds_west', 'REAL'), ('convex_hull', 'LONGTEXT'), ('valid_percentage', 'REAL'), ('min', 'REAL'), ('max', 'REAL'), ('mean', 'REAL'), ('stdev', 'REAL'), ('percentiles', 'BLOB'), ('metadata', 'LONGTEXT') ) _CHARSET: str = 'utf8mb4'
[docs] def __init__(self, mysql_path: str) -> None: """Initialize the MySQLDriver. This should not be called directly, use :func:`~terracotta.get_driver` instead. Arguments: mysql_path: URL to running MySQL server, in the form ``mysql://username:password@hostname/database`` """ settings = get_settings() self.DB_CONNECTION_TIMEOUT: int = settings.DB_CONNECTION_TIMEOUT con_params = urlparse.urlparse(mysql_path) if not con_params.hostname: con_params = urlparse.urlparse(f'mysql://{mysql_path}') assert con_params.hostname is not None if con_params.scheme != 'mysql': raise ValueError(f'unsupported URL scheme "{con_params.scheme}"') self._db_args = MySQLCredentials( host=con_params.hostname, user=con_params.username, password=con_params.password, port=con_params.port or 3306, db=self._parse_db_name(con_params) ) self._connection: Connection self._cursor: DictCursor self._connected = False self._version_checked: bool = False self._db_keys: Optional[OrderedDict] = None qualified_path = self._build_qualified_path(self._db_args) super().__init__(qualified_path)
@staticmethod def _build_qualified_path(db_args: MySQLCredentials) -> str: """Convert path to mysql://({USER}(:[REDACTED])@){HOST}:{PORT}/{DB}""" qualified_path = ['mysql://'] if db_args.user: qualified_path.append(f'{db_args.user}') if db_args.password: qualified_path.append(':[REDACTED]') qualified_path.append('@') qualified_path.append(f'{}:{db_args.port}/{db_args.db}') return ''.join(qualified_path) @staticmethod def _parse_db_name(con_params: ParseResult) -> str: if not con_params.path: raise ValueError('database must be specified in MySQL path') path = con_params.path.strip('/') if len(path.split('/')) != 1: raise ValueError('invalid database path') return path @requires_connection @convert_exceptions(_ERROR_ON_CONNECT) def _get_db_version(self) -> str: """Terracotta version used to create the database""" cursor = self._cursor cursor.execute('SELECT version from terracotta') db_row = cast(Dict[str, str], cursor.fetchone()) return db_row['version'] db_version = cast(str, property(_get_db_version)) def _connection_callback(self) -> None: if not self._version_checked: # check for version compatibility def versiontuple(version_string: str) -> Sequence[str]: return version_string.split('.') db_version = self.db_version current_version = __version__ if versiontuple(db_version)[:2] != versiontuple(current_version)[:2]: raise exceptions.InvalidDatabaseError( f'Version conflict: database was created in v{db_version}, ' f'but this is v{current_version}' ) self._version_checked = True def _get_key_names(self) -> Tuple[str, ...]: """Names of all keys defined by the database""" return tuple(self.get_keys().keys()) key_names = cast(Tuple[str], property(_get_key_names))
[docs] def connect(self) -> AbstractContextManager: return self._connect(check=True)
@contextlib.contextmanager def _connect(self, check: bool = True) -> Iterator: close = False try: if not self._connected: with convert_exceptions(_ERROR_ON_CONNECT): self._connection = pymysql.connect(, user=self._db_args.user, db=self._db_args.db, password=self._db_args.password, port=self._db_args.port, read_timeout=self.DB_CONNECTION_TIMEOUT, write_timeout=self.DB_CONNECTION_TIMEOUT, binary_prefix=True, charset='utf8mb4' ) self._cursor = cast(DictCursor, self._connection.cursor(DictCursor)) self._connected = close = True if check: self._connection_callback() try: yield except Exception: self._connection.rollback() raise finally: if close: self._connected = False self._cursor.close() self._connection.commit() self._connection.close()
[docs] @convert_exceptions('Could not create database') def create(self, keys: Sequence[str], key_descriptions: Mapping[str, str] = None) -> None: """Create and initialize database with empty tables. This must be called before opening the first connection. The MySQL database must not exist already. Arguments: keys: Key names to use throughout the Terracotta database. key_descriptions: Optional (but recommended) full-text description for some keys, in the form of ``{key_name: description}``. """ if key_descriptions is None: key_descriptions = {} else: key_descriptions = dict(key_descriptions) if not all(k in keys for k in key_descriptions.keys()): raise exceptions.InvalidKeyError('key description dict contains unknown keys') if not all(re.match(r'^\w+$', key) for key in keys): raise exceptions.InvalidKeyError('key names must be alphanumeric') if any(key in self._RESERVED_KEYS for key in keys): raise exceptions.InvalidKeyError(f'key names cannot be one of {self._RESERVED_KEYS!s}') for key in keys: if key not in key_descriptions: key_descriptions[key] = '' # total primary key length has an upper limit in MySQL key_size = self._MAX_PRIMARY_KEY_LENGTH // len(keys) key_type = f'VARCHAR({key_size})' with pymysql.connect(, user=self._db_args.user, password=self._db_args.password, port=self._db_args.port, read_timeout=self.DB_CONNECTION_TIMEOUT, write_timeout=self.DB_CONNECTION_TIMEOUT, binary_prefix=True, charset='utf8mb4') as con: con.execute(f'CREATE DATABASE {self._db_args.db}') with self._connect(check=False): cursor = self._cursor cursor.execute(f'CREATE TABLE terracotta (version VARCHAR(255)) ' f'CHARACTER SET {self._CHARSET}') cursor.execute('INSERT INTO terracotta VALUES (%s)', [str(__version__)]) cursor.execute(f'CREATE TABLE key_names (key_name {key_type}, ' f'description VARCHAR(8000)) CHARACTER SET {self._CHARSET}') key_rows = [(key, key_descriptions[key]) for key in keys] cursor.executemany('INSERT INTO key_names VALUES (%s, %s)', key_rows) key_string = ', '.join([f'{key} {key_type}' for key in keys]) cursor.execute(f'CREATE TABLE datasets ({key_string}, filepath VARCHAR(8000), ' f'PRIMARY KEY({", ".join(keys)})) CHARACTER SET {self._CHARSET}') column_string = ', '.join(f'{col} {col_type}' for col, col_type in self._METADATA_COLUMNS) cursor.execute(f'CREATE TABLE metadata ({key_string}, {column_string}, ' f'PRIMARY KEY ({", ".join(keys)})) CHARACTER SET {self._CHARSET}') # invalidate key cache self._db_keys = None
[docs] def get_keys(self) -> OrderedDict: if self._db_keys is None: self._db_keys = self._get_keys() return self._db_keys
@requires_connection @convert_exceptions('Could not retrieve keys from database') def _get_keys(self) -> OrderedDict: out: OrderedDict = OrderedDict() cursor = self._cursor cursor.execute('SELECT * FROM key_names') key_rows = cursor.fetchall() or () for row in key_rows: out[row['key_name']] = row['description'] return out
[docs] @trace('get_datasets') @requires_connection @convert_exceptions('Could not retrieve datasets') def get_datasets(self, where: Mapping[str, str] = None, page: int = 0, limit: int = None) -> Dict[Tuple[str, ...], str]: cursor = self._cursor if limit is not None: # explicitly cast to int to prevent SQL injection page_fragment = f'LIMIT {int(limit)} OFFSET {int(page) * int(limit)}' else: page_fragment = '' # sort by keys to ensure deterministic results order_fragment = f'ORDER BY {", ".join(self.key_names)}' if where is None: cursor.execute(f'SELECT * FROM datasets {order_fragment} {page_fragment}') else: if not all(key in self.key_names for key in where.keys()): raise exceptions.InvalidKeyError('Encountered unrecognized keys in ' 'where clause') where_fragment = ' AND '.join([f'{key}=%s' for key in where.keys()]) cursor.execute( f'SELECT * FROM datasets WHERE {where_fragment} {order_fragment} {page_fragment}', list(where.values()) ) def keytuple(row: Dict[str, Any]) -> Tuple[str, ...]: return tuple(row[key] for key in self.key_names) datasets = {} for row in cursor: row = cast(Dict[str, Any], row) datasets[keytuple(row)] = row['filepath'] return datasets
@staticmethod def _encode_data(decoded: Mapping[str, Any]) -> Dict[str, Any]: """Transform from internal format to database representation""" encoded = { 'bounds_north': decoded['bounds'][0], 'bounds_east': decoded['bounds'][1], 'bounds_south': decoded['bounds'][2], 'bounds_west': decoded['bounds'][3], 'convex_hull': json.dumps(decoded['convex_hull']), 'valid_percentage': decoded['valid_percentage'], 'min': decoded['range'][0], 'max': decoded['range'][1], 'mean': decoded['mean'], 'stdev': decoded['stdev'], 'percentiles': np.array(decoded['percentiles'], dtype='float32').tobytes(), 'metadata': json.dumps(decoded['metadata']) } return encoded @staticmethod def _decode_data(encoded: Mapping[str, Any]) -> Dict[str, Any]: """Transform from database format to internal representation""" decoded = { 'bounds': tuple([encoded[f'bounds_{d}'] for d in ('north', 'east', 'south', 'west')]), 'convex_hull': json.loads(encoded['convex_hull']), 'valid_percentage': encoded['valid_percentage'], 'range': (encoded['min'], encoded['max']), 'mean': encoded['mean'], 'stdev': encoded['stdev'], 'percentiles': np.frombuffer(encoded['percentiles'], dtype='float32').tolist(), 'metadata': json.loads(encoded['metadata']) } return decoded
[docs] @trace('get_metadata') @requires_connection @convert_exceptions('Could not retrieve metadata') def get_metadata(self, keys: Union[Sequence[str], Mapping[str, str]]) -> Dict[str, Any]: keys = tuple(self._key_dict_to_sequence(keys)) if len(keys) != len(self.key_names): raise exceptions.InvalidKeyError('Got wrong number of keys') cursor = self._cursor where_string = ' AND '.join([f'{key}=%s' for key in self.key_names]) cursor.execute(f'SELECT * FROM metadata WHERE {where_string}', keys) row = cursor.fetchone() if not row: # support lazy loading filepath = self.get_datasets(dict(zip(self.key_names, keys))) if not filepath: raise exceptions.DatasetNotFoundError(f'No dataset found for given keys {keys}') assert len(filepath) == 1 # compute metadata and try again self.insert(keys, filepath[keys], skip_metadata=False) cursor.execute(f'SELECT * FROM metadata WHERE {where_string}', keys) row = cursor.fetchone() assert row data_columns, _ = zip(*self._METADATA_COLUMNS) encoded_data = {col: row[col] for col in self.key_names + data_columns} return self._decode_data(encoded_data)
[docs] @trace('insert') @requires_connection @convert_exceptions('Could not write to database') def insert(self, keys: Union[Sequence[str], Mapping[str, str]], filepath: str, *, metadata: Mapping[str, Any] = None, skip_metadata: bool = False, override_path: str = None) -> None: cursor = self._cursor if len(keys) != len(self.key_names): raise exceptions.InvalidKeyError( f'Got wrong number of keys (available keys: {self.key_names})' ) if override_path is None: override_path = filepath keys = self._key_dict_to_sequence(keys) template_string = ', '.join(['%s'] * (len(keys) + 1)) cursor.execute(f'REPLACE INTO datasets VALUES ({template_string})', [*keys, override_path]) if metadata is None and not skip_metadata: metadata = self.compute_metadata(filepath) if metadata is not None: encoded_data = self._encode_data(metadata) row_keys, row_values = zip(*encoded_data.items()) template_string = ', '.join(['%s'] * (len(keys) + len(row_values))) cursor.execute(f'REPLACE INTO metadata ({", ".join(self.key_names)}, ' f'{", ".join(row_keys)}) VALUES ({template_string})', [*keys, *row_values])
[docs] @trace('delete') @requires_connection @convert_exceptions('Could not write to database') def delete(self, keys: Union[Sequence[str], Mapping[str, str]]) -> None: cursor = self._cursor if len(keys) != len(self.key_names): raise exceptions.InvalidKeyError( f'Got wrong number of keys (available keys: {self.key_names})' ) keys = self._key_dict_to_sequence(keys) key_dict = dict(zip(self.key_names, keys)) if not self.get_datasets(key_dict): raise exceptions.DatasetNotFoundError(f'No dataset found with keys {keys}') where_string = ' AND '.join([f'{key}=%s' for key in self.key_names]) cursor.execute(f'DELETE FROM datasets WHERE {where_string}', keys) cursor.execute(f'DELETE FROM metadata WHERE {where_string}', keys)